How to Download the Free Awwa C651-14 Standard Pdf
The Awwa C651-14 standard describes essential procedures for the disinfection of new and repaired potable water mains. It is a useful guide for water utilities, contractors, engineers, and regulators who are involved in the installation, maintenance, and operation of water distribution systems.
If you are looking for a free copy of the Awwa C651-14 standard pdf, you have a few options. Here are some of them:
You can download it from the official website of the American Water Works Association (AWWA), which is the publisher of the standard. However, you need to be a member of AWWA or pay a fee to access it. The membership fee varies depending on your category and location. The non-member price for the pdf is $140.00[^1^].
You can search for it on other websites that offer free downloads of pdf files. However, you need to be careful about the quality and legality of these sources. Some of them may not have the latest version of the standard, or may contain viruses or malware that can harm your computer. You also need to respect the copyright of AWWA and not distribute or reproduce the pdf without their permission.
You can borrow it from a library or a friend who has a copy of the standard. This way, you can read it without paying anything or risking your computer's security. However, you need to return it after you finish using it, and you cannot make any copies or modifications to it.
As you can see, there is no easy way to get a free Awwa C651-14 standard pdf. You either have to pay for it, risk your computer's safety, or borrow it from someone else. The best option is to join AWWA and enjoy the benefits of their membership, which include access to their standards and other publications, as well as discounts, networking opportunities, and professional development resources.
If you are interested in joining AWWA or learning more about their standards, you can visit their website at https://www.awwa.org/.
Why Disinfecting Water Mains is Important
Disinfecting water mains is a crucial step to ensure the safety and quality of drinking water. Water mains can become contaminated with harmful microorganisms during construction, repair, or maintenance activities, or due to intrusion events such as pressure loss, backflow, or cross-connections. These microorganisms can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, and hepatitis A.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), disinfection with chlorine or chloramine kills disease-causing germs such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and norovirus in drinking water[^1^]. Disinfection also prevents the growth of biofilms, which are slimy layers of bacteria and other microorganisms that can attach to the inner surfaces of water pipes and reduce water quality and flow. Biofilms can also harbor pathogens that can be released into the water under certain conditions.
Disinfecting water mains is not only beneficial for public health, but also for regulatory compliance and customer satisfaction. Water utilities are required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to maintain a residual disinfectant level in the distribution system that is sufficient to protect against microbial contamination. Failure to do so can result in violations, fines, or enforcement actions by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or state primacy agencies. Moreover, disinfecting water mains can improve customer confidence and satisfaction by preventing taste, odor, color, and turbidity problems that can be caused by microbial contamination.
How to Disinfect Water Mains
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has developed a standard for disinfecting water mains that is widely accepted and followed by water utilities and contractors. The standard is ANSI/AWWA C651-14 Disinfecting Water Mains[^2^], which describes essential procedures for the disinfection of new and repaired potable water mains. The standard covers three different methods of disinfection: continuous feed method, slug method, and tablet method. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation and preference of the utility.
The continuous feed method involves adding chlorine to the water at a constant rate while filling the main until a chlorine concentration of at least 25 mg/L is reached throughout the main. The chlorinated water is then held in the main for at least 24 hours before flushing it out until the chlorine residual is no higher than that generally prevailing in the distribution system.
The slug method involves adding chlorine to a section of the main to create a concentrated slug of chlorinated water with at least 100 mg/L of chlorine. The slug is then moved along the main at a velocity of at least 0.3 ft/s until all sections of the main have been exposed to the high chlorine concentration for at least 3 hours. The chlorinated water is then flushed out until the chlorine residual is no higher than that generally prevailing in the distribution system.
The tablet method involves placing calcium hypochlorite tablets inside the new main before it is installed or repaired. The tablets dissolve when water is introduced into the main, creating a chlorine concentration of at least 25 mg/L throughout the main. The chlorinated water is then held in the main for at least 24 hours before flushing it out until the chlorine residual is no higher than that generally prevailing in the distribution system.
Regardless of which method is used, disinfection must be followed by bacteriological testing to confirm that no coliform bacteria are present in the water samples collected from the main. If coliform bacteria are detected, disinfection must be repeated until satisfactory results are obtained. 061ffe29dd